Saint-Petersburg State University
Faculty of Biology

Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Rus | Eng

Morphology and phylogeny of turbellarians

Head of the Group:
Dr. Olga Raikova, Zoological Institute RAS, 199034 St.-Petersburg, Russia,

Raikova Olga,
Frolova Tatyana, 4-th year student, Department of Invertebrate Zoology of St Petersburg State University.

Sampling of turbellarians at the White sea. Olga Raikova and Yana Frolova.

Main publications:

  1. Raikova O.I., Justine J.-L.,1999. Microtubular system during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon of Convoluta saliens (Platyhelminthes, Acoela): tubulin immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Molecular Reproduction and Development 52: 74–85.
  2. Raikova, O.I. Reuter M., Jondelius U, Gustafsson M.K.S., 2000. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of the nervous and muscular systems of Xenoturbella westbladi (Bilateria inc.sed). Zoomorphology, 120: 107–118.
  3. Raikova O.I., Reuter M., Jondelius U, Gustafsson M.K.S., 2000. The brain of the Nemertodermatida (Platyhelminthes) as revealed by anti-5HT and anti-FMRFamide immunostainings Tissue & Cell. 32 (5): 358–365.
  4. Raikova O.I., Reuter M., Gustafsson M.K.S, Maule A.G, Halton, D.W. and Jondelius U. 2004. Basiepidermal nervous system in Nemertoderma westbladi (Nemertodermatida): GYIRFamide immunoreactivity. Zoology, 107: 75–86.
  5. Raikova O. I. Tekle, Y. I., Reuter, M. and Jondelius, U. 2006. Copulatory organ musculature in Childia (Acoela) as revealed by phalloidin fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Tissue and Cell. 38: 219–232.
  6. Tekle Y. I., Raikova O.I, Justine J-L., Hendelberg J., Jondelius U. 2007. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigation of acoel sperms with 9 + 1 axoneme structure: new sperm characters for unraveling phylogeny in Acoela. Zoomorphology, 126: 1–16.
  7. Raikova O.I., Reuter M., Gustafsson M.K.S, Maule A.G, Halton, D.W. and Jondelius U. 2004. Evolution of the nervous system in Paraphanostoma (Acoela). Zoologica Scripta 33: 71–88.
  8. Kotikova E.A., Raikova O. I., 2008 Architectonics of the central nervous system of Acoela, Plathelminthes, and Rotifera. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, 44(1): 95–108.
  9. Jondelius U., Wallberg A., Hooge M., Raikova O.I. 2011. How the Worm Got its Pharynx: Phylogeny, Classification and Bayesian assessment of Character Evolution in Acoela. Systematic Biology 60(6):845–871.
  10. Meyer-Wachsmuth I., Raikova O.I., Jondelius U. 2013. The muscular system of Nemertoderma westbladi and Meara stichopi (Nemertodermatida, Acoelomorpha) // Zoomorphology, (DOI) 10.1007/s00435-013-0191-6
  11. Raikova O.I., Meyer-Wachsmuth I., Jondelius U. 2016. The plastic nervous system of Nemertodermatida // Organisms Diversity and Evolution, in press.DOI 10.1007/s13127-015-0248-0
  12. Raikova E.V., Raikova O.I. 2016. Nervous system immunohistochemistry of a parasitic cnidarian Polypodium hydriforme at its free-living stage // Zoology, in press. doi:10.1016/j.zool.2015.11.004

Musculature of Anaperus biaculeatus (Acoela) stained by phalloidin. Confocal image by Yana Frolova, 2012.

Scientific interests:
Olga Raikova’s main projects now underway center on phylogenetic relationships of three groups of lower Bilaterians: the Acoela, Nemertodermatida and Xenoturbellida and on the phylogeny within the Acoela. She is mostly interested in the nervous, muscular and reproductive systems of these animals. She applies electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry and confocal fluorescence microscopy in search of phylogenetic clues. Occasionally, she also studies free-living flatworms — Rhabditophora and Catenulida, rotifers, cnidarians and even myxozoans.

Olga Raikova at the microscope
Yana Frolova is currently investigating the muscular system of acoels from the family Convolutidae using phalloidin fluorescence method and confocal microscopy.

Laboratory of Evolutionary Morphology ZIN RAN,
Department of Invertebrate Zoology, St Petersburg State University.

White sea stations Kartesh, Sredny.
Rarely we also go to the Swedish West Coast (Kristineberg. and Tjärnö stations).

We have long-lasting cooperation with the Museum of Natural History in Stockholm

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